Dotless Domains

"Dotless domains" are domains that consist of a single label (e.g. http://ai/, as opposed to http://example.ai/; or [email protected]pa as opposed to [email protected]example.pa) due to there being A/AAAA or MX records in the apex of a TLD zone.[1]

ICANN is notoriously against the practice,[1] and prohibits it where it can – namely, on gTLDs.[3] However, ccTLDs are under the country's jurisdiction, so it can do as it pleases, and as such there are examples of active dotless ccTLD domains.

For email, the protocol itself would need to allow a dotless domain as a destination address. According to ICANN's SSAC,[1] SMTP requires at least two labels (i.e. "domain.tld") to deliver an email, so it is unlikely Panama would receive an email sent to [email protected], for example. For completeness' sake, however, apex MX servers are listed below as well.

Table of Contents:

  1. A or AAAA
    1. Current
      1. Screenshots
    2. New TLDs
    3. Historical
      1. Screenshots
  2. MX only
    1. Current
    2. Historical
  3. References
  4. Special Thanks

# A or AAAA

# Current

Territory ccTLD URL IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Status First seen on
Anguilla (UK) .ai http://ai/ 209.59.119.34 mail.offshore.ai
HTTP
Alive (offshore.ai mirror)
HTTPS
Connection refused
2013[5]
Cameroon .cm http://cm/ 195.24.205.60 No
HTTP/S
Timeout
Other
SSH open
2013[5]
Pitcairn Islands (UK) .pn http://pn/ 139.162.17.173 No
HTTP
Configuration page (pitcairn.net.pn mirror)
HTTPS
400 Bad Request
Aug. 2021
Tokelau (NZ) .tk http://tk/ 217.119.57.22 No
HTTP
Timeout
HTTPS
Connection closed
2013[5]
Uzbekistan .uz https://uz/ 91.212.89.8 No
HTTP
500 Internal Server Error
HTTPS
Alive (cctld.uz mirror)
2013[5]
Vatican .va http://va/ [2a01:b8:0:1:212:77:0:2]
[2a01:b8:0:1:212:77:0:110]
No
Other
No known open ports, aside from DNS
Aug. 2021
Samoa .ws http://ws/ 64.70.19.33 mail.worldsite.ws
HTTP/S
Timeout
Other
SSH timeout
2013[5]

Last checked: 3 Aug. 2022.

# Screenshots

# New TLDs

In order to prevent local aliases from colliding with newly registered TLDs (think programmers using foo.bar as a test domain before the creation of the gTLD .bar), ICANN published a resolution in 2014 requiring new TLDs to include a few apex DNS records on their TLDs for at least 90 days.[4]

As such, as of January 2022, the following TLDs also contain apex records, but they're merely informational and don't point to real servers:

TLD IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Text record
(TXT)
.arab 127.0.53.53 your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.arab "Your DNS configuration needs immediate attention see https://icann.org/namecollision"
.cpa your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.cpa
.music your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.music
.politie your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.politie

Last checked: 3 Jan. 2022.

# Historical

These are TLDs that previously had apex records, but no longer do so. The bulk of it comes from a list by the IETF from 2013:

Territory ccTLD URL IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Last known
working date
Ascension (UK) .ac http://ac/ 193.223.78.210 No 2013[5]
Bahrain .bh http://bh/ 88.201.27.211
10.10.10.10
No Jan. 2022
Denmark .dk http://dk/ 193.163.102.24
[2a01:630:0:40:b1a:b1a:2011:1]
No 2013[5]
Guernsey (UK) .gg http://gg/ 87.117.196.80 No 2013[5]
British Indian Ocean Territory (UK) .io http://io/ 193.223.78.212 mailer2.io 2013[5]
Jersey (UK) .je http://je/ 87.117.196.80 No 2013[5]
Cambodia .kh http://kh/ 203.223.32.21 ns1.dns.net.kh 2013[5]
Saint Helena (UK) .sh http://sh/ 193.223.78.211 No 2013[5]
Turkmenistan .tm http://tm/ 193.223.78.213 No 2013[5]
Tonga .to http://to/ 216.74.32.107 No 2013[5]
Virgin Islands (US) .vi http://vi/ 193.0.0.198 No 2013[5]

# Screenshots


# MX only

# Current

Territory ccTLD Email server
(MX)
First seen on
Central African Republic .cf mail.intnet.cf 2013[5]
Guadeloupe (FR) .gp ns1.nic.gp 2013[5]
Guatemala .gt aspmx2.googlemail.com
aspmx5.googlemail.com
aspmx4.googlemail.com
aspmx.l.google.com
alt1.aspmx.l.google.com
alt2.aspmx.l.google.com
2013[5]
Croatia .hr alpha.carnet.hr 2013[5]
Cambodia .kh ns1.dns.net.kh 2013[5]
Comoros .km mail1.comorestelecom.km 2013[5]
Sri Lanka .lk malithi-slt.nic.lk
malithi-lc.nic.lk
2013[5]
Martinique (FR) .mq mx1-mq.mediaserv.net 2013[5]
Mauritania .mr mail.nic.mr Aug. 2021
Panama .pa ns.pa 2013[5]
Philippines .ph mx1.sendnow.ph
mx2.sendnow.ph
mx3.sendnow.ph
mx4.sendnow.ph
mx5.sendnow.ph
Aug. 2021
Suriname .sr spsbbank.sr Aug. 2021
Trinidad and Tobago .tt aspmx.l.google.com
alt1.aspmx.l.google.com
2013[5]
Ukraine .ua mr.kolo.net 2013[5]

Last checked: 3 Aug. 2022.

# Historical

Similarly to the historical A/AAAA records, these are TLDs that previously (only) had apex MX records, but no longer do so:

Territory ccTLD Email server
(MX)
Last known
working date
Åland Islands (FI) .ax mail.aland.net 2013[5]
Dominica .dm mail.nic.dm 2013[5]
Vatican .va raphaelmx1.posta.va
raphaelmx2.posta.va
raphaelmx3.posta.va
2013[5]
Yemen .ye mail.yemen.net.ye 2013[5]