Dotless Domains

"Dotless domains" are domains that consist of a single label (e.g. http://ai/, as opposed to http://example.ai/; or [email protected]pa as opposed to [email protected]example.pa) due to there being A/AAAA or MX records in the apex of a TLD zone.[1]

ICANN is notoriously against the practice,[1] and prohibits it where it can – namely, on gTLDs.[3] However, ccTLDs are under the country's jurisdiction, so it can do as it pleases, and as such there are examples of active dotless ccTLD domains.

For email, the protocol itself would need to allow a dotless domain as a destination address. According to ICANN's SSAC,[1] SMTP requires at least two labels (i.e. "domain.tld") to deliver an email, so it is unlikely Panama would receive an email sent to [email protected], for example. For completeness' sake, however, apex MX servers are listed below as well.

A or AAAA

Current

Territory ccTLD URL IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Status
Anguilla (UK) .ai http://ai/ 209.59.119.34 mail.offshore.ai Alive on HTTP (mirror of offshore.ai); 400 on HTTPS
Bahrain .bh http://bh/ 88.201.27.211
10.10.10.10
No 400 on HTTP; timeout on HTTPS
Cameroon .cm http://cm/ 195.24.205.60 No Timeout on HTTP/S; SSH open and responsive
Pitcairn Islands (UK) .pn http://pn/ 139.162.17.173 No Configuration page on HTTP (mirror of pitcairn.net.pn); 400 on HTTPS
Tokelau (NZ) .tk http://tk/ 217.119.57.22 No Open, but empty response on HTTPS
Uzbekistan .uz https://uz/ 91.212.89.8 No Alive on HTTPS only (mirror of cctld.uz)
Vatican .va http://va/ [2a01:b8:0:1:212:77:0:2]
[2a01:b8:0:1:212:77:0:110]
No No known open ports (aside from DNS)
Samoa .ws http://ws/ 64.70.19.33 mail.worldsite.ws Timeout

Last updated: 14 August 2021.

Screenshots

New TLDs

In order to prevent local aliases from colliding with newly registered TLDs (think programmers using foo.bar as a test domain before the creation of the gTLD .bar), ICANN published a resolution in 2014 requiring new TLDs to include a few apex DNS records on their TLDs for at least 90 days.[4]

As such, as of August 2021, the following TLDs also contain apex records, but they're merely informational and don't point to real servers:

TLD IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Text record
(TXT)
.arab 127.0.53.53 your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.arab "Your DNS configuration needs immediate attention see https://icann.org/namecollision"
.cpa your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.cpa
.politie your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.politie
.watches your-dns-needs-immediate-attention.watches

Last updated: 14 August 2021.

Historical

These are TLDs that previously had apex records, but no longer do so. The bulk of it comes from a list by the IETF from 2013:[5]

Territory ccTLD URL IP
(A/AAAA)
Email server
(MX)
Last known working year
Ascension (UK) .ac http://ac/ 193.223.78.210 No 2013[5]
Denmark .dk http://dk/ 193.163.102.24
[2a01:630:0:40:b1a:b1a:2011:1]
No 2013[5]
Guernsey (UK) .gg http://gg/ 87.117.196.80 No 2013[5]
British Indian Ocean Territory (UK) .io http://io/ 193.223.78.212 mailer2.io 2013[5]
Jersey (UK) .je http://je/ 87.117.196.80 No 2013[5]
Cambodia .kh http://kh/ 203.223.32.21 ns1.dns.net.kh 2013[5]
Saint Helena (UK) .sh http://sh/ 193.223.78.211 No 2013[5]
Turkmenistan .tm http://tm/ 193.223.78.213 No 2013[5]
Tonga .to http://to/ 216.74.32.107 No 2013[5]
Virgin Islands (US) .vi http://vi/ 193.0.0.198 No 2013[5]

MX only

Current

Territory ccTLD Email server
(MX)
Central African Republic .cf mail.intnet.cf
Guadeloupe (FR) .gp ns1.nic.gp
Guatemala .gt aspmx2.googlemail.com
aspmx5.googlemail.com
aspmx4.googlemail.com
aspmx.l.google.com
alt1.aspmx.l.google.com
alt2.aspmx.l.google.com
Croatia .hr alpha.carnet.hr
Comoros .km mail1.comorestelecom.km
Sri Lanka .lk malithi-slt.nic.lk
malithi-lc.nic.lk
Martinique (FR) .mq mx1-mq.mediaserv.net
Mauritania .mr mail.nic.mr
Panama .pa ns.pa
Philippines .ph mx1.sendnow.ph
mx2.sendnow.ph
mx3.sendnow.ph
mx4.sendnow.ph
mx5.sendnow.ph
Suriname .sr spsbbank.sr
Trinidad and Tobago .tt aspmx.l.google.com
alt1.aspmx.l.google.com
Ukraine .ua mr.kolo.net

Last updated: 14 August 2021.

Historical

Similarly to the historical A/AAAA records, these are TLDs that previously had apex MX records, but no longer do so:[5]

Territory ccTLD Email server
(MX)
Last known working year
Åland Islands (FI) .ax mail.aland.net 2013[5]
Dominica .dm mail.nic.dm 2013[5]
Vatican .va raphaelmx1.posta.va
raphaelmx2.posta.va
raphaelmx3.posta.va
2013[5]
Yemen .ye mail.yemen.net.ye 2013[5]