Dotless Domains

"Dotless domains" are domains that consist of a single label (e.g. http://ai/, as opposed to; or [email protected]pa as opposed to [email protected] due to there being A/AAAA or MX records in the apex of a TLD zone.[1]

ICANN is notoriously against the practice,[1] and prohibits it where it can – namely, on gTLDs.[3] However, ccTLDs are under the country's jurisdiction, so it can do as it pleases, and as such there are examples of active dotless ccTLD domains.

For email, the protocol itself would need to allow a dotless domain as a destination address. According to ICANN's SSAC,[1] SMTP requires at least two labels (i.e. "domain.tld") to deliver an email, so it is unlikely Panama would receive an email sent to [email protected], for example. For completeness' sake, however, apex MX servers are listed below as well.



Territory ccTLD URL IP
Email server
Anguilla (UK) .ai http://ai/ Alive on HTTP (mirror of; 400 on HTTPS
Bahrain .bh http://bh/
No 400 on HTTP; timeout on HTTPS
Cameroon .cm http://cm/ No Timeout on HTTP/S; SSH open and responsive
Pitcairn Islands (UK) .pn http://pn/ No Configuration page on HTTP (mirror of; 400 on HTTPS
Tokelau (NZ) .tk http://tk/ No Open, but empty response on HTTPS
Uzbekistan .uz https://uz/ No Alive on HTTPS only (mirror of
Vatican .va http://va/ [2a01:b8:0:1:212:77:0:2]
No No known open ports (aside from DNS)
Samoa .ws http://ws/ Timeout

Last updated: 14 August 2021.


New TLDs

In order to prevent local aliases from colliding with newly registered TLDs (think programmers using as a test domain before the creation of the gTLD .bar), ICANN published a resolution in 2014 requiring new TLDs to include a few apex DNS records on their TLDs for at least 90 days.[4]

As such, as of August 2021, the following TLDs also contain apex records, but they're merely informational and don't point to real servers:

Email server
Text record
.arab "Your DNS configuration needs immediate attention see"

Last updated: 14 August 2021.


These are TLDs that previously had apex records, but no longer do so. The bulk of it comes from a list by the IETF from 2013:[5]

Territory ccTLD URL IP
Email server
Last known working year
Ascension (UK) .ac http://ac/ No 2013[5]
Denmark .dk http://dk/
No 2013[5]
Guernsey (UK) .gg http://gg/ No 2013[5]
British Indian Ocean Territory (UK) .io http://io/ 2013[5]
Jersey (UK) .je http://je/ No 2013[5]
Cambodia .kh http://kh/ 2013[5]
Saint Helena (UK) .sh http://sh/ No 2013[5]
Turkmenistan .tm http://tm/ No 2013[5]
Tonga .to http://to/ No 2013[5]
Virgin Islands (US) .vi http://vi/ No 2013[5]

MX only


Territory ccTLD Email server
Central African Republic .cf
Guadeloupe (FR) .gp
Guatemala .gt
Croatia .hr
Comoros .km
Sri Lanka .lk
Martinique (FR) .mq
Mauritania .mr
Panama .pa
Philippines .ph
Suriname .sr
Trinidad and Tobago .tt
Ukraine .ua

Last updated: 14 August 2021.


Similarly to the historical A/AAAA records, these are TLDs that previously had apex MX records, but no longer do so:[5]

Territory ccTLD Email server
Last known working year
Åland Islands (FI) .ax 2013[5]
Dominica .dm 2013[5]
Vatican .va
Yemen .ye 2013[5]